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                +微信公眾號 100000+人已加入

                第一次“大圍剿”

                贊賞

                1985年5月,香港《廣角鏡》雜志在第152期發表了香港大學亞洲研究中心陳文鴻博士的文章《深圳的問題在哪里?》。

                 

                這是打響“特區失敗論”的第一槍,這一槍揭開了“深圳第一次大圍剿”的帷幕。

                 

                該文最引人注目的是兩點:第一,深圳特區沒有做到所說的三個為主。資金以外資為主,產業結構以工業為主,產品以出口為主是中央給深圳定下的目標,但事實并非如此。1983年進口大于出口,引進的主要是被香港、日本淘汰不用的設備;引進的外資只占30%,這30%中又主要是港資;1983年深圳工業總產值7.2億元,而社會零售商品總額為12.5億元,做生意賺的錢比工業掙的錢多得多。

                 

                第二,特區賺了內地的錢。“一些上海人跑到深圳買了一把折骨傘,發現竟是從上海送去香港,又轉回深圳的。”

                 

                文章還認為,深圳的經濟是依賴貿易,而貿易中又主要是對國內其他地方的轉口貿易。深圳五年多來的表面繁榮,也主要根植于此。

                 

                這篇文章在國內外激起軒然大波,引發了經濟特區“失敗論”的大合唱。

                 

                中央高層也首次暗示,要逐漸拔掉“輸血的針頭”。

                 

                此時,深圳看到了中央對深圳進行全面整頓的決心。但整頓力度之大,完全超乎深圳的預料。

                 

                首先,這一年,按照國家的統一計劃,銀行的貸款大面積收縮,深圳的基建投資,一下子被砍去了10個億。隨著基建投資的壓縮,基建隊伍也全面縮減。17萬人的基建隊伍只留下了9萬人;20幢18層以上的高樓被停建。

                 

                當年12月,鄧小平同志會見外賓時,再次談到經濟特區。他說:“深圳特區對我們來說,也是一個試驗。現在還有一些問題沒有解決。不過,特區開始才三年多一點時間,再過三年總會找出辦法解決這些問題的。”

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